GRADUS AD PARNASSUM. supercuadripartita. Elementos de la aritmética: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Figs. 13 y Fux/van Ghelen (, facsímil). In Fux’s opinion the third quarter may be dissonant provided both of the quarters (“flowering’ counterpoint) and corresponds to the contrapunto diminuto of the. It is well documented that Haydn read extensively from Fux’s Gradus ad at the end of his partimento-based Scuola di Contrapunto, suggests Fux’s book as.
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In musiccounterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent polyphony yet independent in rhythm and contour.
The term originates from the Latin punctus contra punctum meaning “point against point”. Counterpoint has been contrapungo to designate a voice or even an entire composition. In the words of John Rahn:. It is hard to write a beautiful song.
It is harder to write several individually beautiful songs that, when sung simultaneously, sound as a more beautiful polyphonic whole. The internal structures that create each of the voices separately must contribute to the emergent structure of the polyphony, which in turn must reinforce and comment on the structures of the individual voices.
The way that is accomplished in detail is Counterpoint theory has been given a mathematical foundation in the work initiated by Guerino Mazzola. In particular, his model gives a structural and not psychological foundation of forbidden parallels of fifths and the dissonant fourth.
Counterpoint – Wikipedia
The model has also been extended to microtonal contexts by Octavio Agustin. Some examples of related compositional techniques include: All of these are examples of imitative counterpoint. Species counterpoint was developed as a pedagogical tool in which students progress through several “species” of increasing conrtapunto, with a very simple part that remains constant known as the contrapunfo firmus Latin for “fixed melody”.
Species counterpoint generally offers less freedom to the composer than other types of counterpoint and therefore is called a “strict” counterpoint. The student gradually attains the ability to write free counterpoint that is, less rigorously constrained counterpoint, usually without a cantus firmus according to the given rules at the time.
The 16th-century Venetian theorist Zarlino elaborated on conttapunto idea in his influential Le institutioni harmonicheand it was first presented in a codified form in by Lodovico Zacconi in his Prattica di musica. Zacconi, unlike later theorists, included a few extra contrapuntal techniques, such as invertible counterpoint. A succession of later theorists quite closely imitated Fux’s seminal work, often with some small and idiosyncratic modifications in the rules.
Many of Fux’s rules concerning the purely linear construction of melodies contrxpunto their origin in solfeggi. Concerning the common practice era, alterations fu the melodic rules were introduced to enable the function of certain harmonic forms. The combination of these melodies produced the basic harmonic structure; the figured bass.
In first species counterpoint, each note in xontrapunto added part parts being also referred to fu lines or voices sounds against one note in the cantus firmus. Notes in all parts are sounded simultaneously, and move against each other simultaneously. Since all notes in First species counterpoint are whole notes, rhythmic independence is not available.
In contrappunto present context, a “step” is a melodic interval of a half or whole step. A “skip” is an interval of a third or fourth. See Steps and skips. An interval of a fifth or larger is referred to as a “leap”. Contrapumto few further rules given by Fux, by study of the Palestrina style, and usually given in the works of later counterpoint pedagogues, [ citation needed ] are as follows.
In the adjacent example in two parts, the cantus firmus is the lower part. The same cantus firmus is used for contrqpunto examples also. Each is in the Dorian mode. In second species counterpoint, two notes in each of the added parts work against each longer note in the given part. Additional considerations in second species counterpoint are as follows, and are in addition to the considerations for first species:.
In third species counterpoint, four or three, etc. Three special figures are introduced into third species and later added to fifth species, and ultimately outside the restrictions of species writing.
There are three figures to consider: The nota cambiatadouble neighbor tones, and double passing tones. The conttapunto and lower tones are prepared on beat 1 and resolved on beat 4. The fifth note or downbeat of the next measure should move by step in the same direction as the last two notes of the double neighbor figure.
Lastly a double passing tone allows two dissonant passing tones in a row. The figure would consist of 4 notes moving in the same direction by step. The two notes that allow dissonance would be beat 2 and 3 or 3 and 4. The dissonant interval of a fourth would proceed into a diminished fifth and the next note would resolve at the interval of a sixth. In fourth species counterpoint, some notes are sustained or suspended in an added part while notes move against them in the given part, often creating a dissonance on the beat, followed by the suspended note then changing and “catching up” to create a subsequent consonance with the note in the given part as it continues to sound.
As before, fourth species counterpoint is called expanded when the added-part notes vary in length among themselves. The technique requires chains of notes sustained across the boundaries determined by beat, and so creates syncopation. Also it is important to note that a dissonant interval is allowed on beat 1 because of the syncopation created by the suspension. In fifth species counterpoint, sometimes called florid counterpointthe other four species of counterpoint are combined within the added parts.
In the example, the first and second bars are second species, the third bar is third species, the fourth and fifth bars are third and embellished fourth species, and the final bar is first species.
Gradus ad Parnassum (Fux, Johann Joseph)
Since the Renaissance period in European music, much contrapuntal music has been written in imitative counterpoint. In imitative counterpoint, two or more voices enter at different times, and especially when entering each voice repeats some version of the same melodic element. The fantasiathe ricercarand later, the canon and fugue ufx contrapuntal form par excellence all feature imitative counterpoint, which also frequently appears in choral works such as motets and madrigals.
Imitative counterpoint spawned a number of devices, including:. Broadly speaking, due to the development of harmony, from the Baroque contrapnto on, most contrapuntal compositions were written in the style of free counterpoint. This means that the general focus of the composer had shifted away conhrapunto how the intervals of added melodies related to a cantus firmusand more toward how they related to each other.
Nonetheless, according to Kent Kennan: Linear counterpoint is “a purely horizontal technique in which the integrity of the individual melodic lines is not sacrificed to harmonic considerations. Associated with neoclassicism the first work to use the technique is Igor Stravinsky ‘s Octet inspired by J. Bach and Giovanni Palestrina. However, according contraounto Knud Jeppesen: Palestrina starts out from lines and arrives at chords; Bach’s music grows out of an ideally harmonic background, against which the voices develop with a bold independence that is often breath-taking.
According to Cunningham, linear harmony is “a frequent approach in the 20th century Dissonant counterpoint was originally theorized by Charles Seeger as “at first purely a school-room discipline,” consisting fuxx species counterpoint but with all the traditional rules reversed. First species counterpoint must be all dissonances, establishing “dissonance, rather than consonance, contrapunnto the rule,” and consonances are “resolved” through a skip, not step.
He wrote that “the effect of this discipline” was “one of purification. Seeger was not the first to employ dissonant counterpoint, but was the first to theorize and promote it. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Counterpoint disambiguation. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove contrapunt template messages.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Extract from Fugue no. The Complete Musician 2 ed. Oxford University Press, Inc. Going Contra;unto Far in Musical Essays. The Study of Voice Contrapnuto.
Retrieved 17 January Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Challenge to Musical Tradition: Da Capo Press, ; reprinted n. Technique for Composersp. Dissonant Counterpoint, Henry Cowell, and the network of ultra-modern composers Archived at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved from ” https: Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikibooks.