testu «zaharrak» nahiz lizentzia libre egokiarekin ateratako berriak biltzen dituen liburutegi birtuala da. Parte har ezazu euskarazko liburuak. newspaper; hemengo ardoa the wine from here; nolako gizona? what kind of man?; euskarazko liburuak books in Basque; kontrako eritziak contrary opinions; . hona naiz by Joseba Sarrionandia Obabakoak by Bernardo Atxaga Gizona bere bakardadean by Bernardo Atxaga. Euskarazko liburuak. 13 books — 3 voters.

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Published in Transcript In the short history of Basque literature, translation has always played an important role: Unlike literatures of major languages such as English where the percentage of translations is dwarfed eusarazko the enormous amount of original works, minority languages such as Basque have had to depend on translation in order to increase their literary production.

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Lawrence Venuti, in his work The Translator’s Invisibilitygives some data about the percentages of translation in different languages during the s: Looking at the data of “smaller” languages, this percentage increases significantly: What one can gather from this information is that the more powerful and widespread a language, the smaller the percentage of translations in its total literary production.

Therefore, it should not come as much of a surprise that the literatures of minority languages such as Basque are made up of a significant number of translations the percentage of Basque translations in was Of course, the opposite is the case when it comes to book exports. In contrast with British and American publishers, devoted to acquiring bestsellers and selling translation rights rather than buying them, minor and minority languages resort to translations from the other major languages that dominate the publishing industry in order for their literature to survive VENUTI In fact, the number of Basque books translated into other languages is very small when compared to the relative strength of literary publishing activity in the Basque Country, and it is not until the s that Basque literature starts to be heard beyond its boundaries.

The aim of this article is to give a general overview of translation as relates to the Basque Country. After a brief description of the history of Basque translation, we shall confine our attention to what is being translated not only into Spanish, but also into other languages. Despite the centrality of translation in Basque literature, the study of this activity remains a relatively unexplored field in the Basque Country, as evidenced by the relative lack of works published in the area.

Apart from data about the percentages of translation through history provided by authors such as Ibon Sarasola and Joan Mari Torrealdai, in their research into Basque literature, there are still very few works that focus on the activity of translation. The most comprehensive account of Basque translation history is Xabier Mendiguren Bereziartu’s Euskal itzulpenaren historia laburraalthough Manu Lopez’s works on children’s and young people’s literature LOPEZprovides an important contribution to the study of the role of translation within the Basque literary system.

From tothis percentage increased to After the hard years that followed the Spanish civil war, Basque literature started to revive again in the Southern part of the Basque Country, especially from the s onwards, and translation reached again a higher percentage in the literary production But it was not until the end of the Franco regime that Basque literature and translation enjoyed the proper conditions to begin to thrive.

Translation activity experienced a great increase during this period due to the creation of a bilingual administration and the accompanying regeneration of the Basque media. It continued to gain in importance during the last years of the s and the beginnings of the s, constituting As a result of this new climate, translation activity continued to grow, although the percentage is smaller From Xabier Mendiguren Bereziartu’s Euskal itzulpenaren historia laburrait is clear that most of the translations before were religious texts, and that the mode of translating was conditioned by the ideological need to reproduce faithfully the word of God.

The first Basque translation -which was, in fact, the second published book in the short history of Basque literature, born with Bernart Etxepare’s Lingua Vasconum Primitiaein was, as already mentioned, Joanes Leizarraga’s New Testament The translation was considered a masterpiece and established the basis of word for word translation.

During the seventieth century, most of the translated works were ascetic books, although some proverbs were also translated from different languages. Eighteenth century translation is characterised by its multiple translations of the Bible Betri Urte, Joanes Haraneder and Joaquin Lizarraga from Elkano, among othersand by several attempts to raise the Basque language to the status of “language of culture” Manuel Larramendi, Agustin Kardaberaz, Joan Antonio Mogel and so forth.

The most famous translations of the nineteenth century are those made under the leadership of the French Prince Bonaparte. He became interested in the Basque language, and in order to analyse the different Basque dialects, he asked a group of writers to translate some parts of the Bible into their own Basque dialect.

After the loss of the Basque “fueros” special legislative privileges inthere was growing concern about Basque national history, culture and language, and a flourishing literature began to grow. The beginning of the twentieth century was marked by the desire of transmitting God? Trying to satisfy this will, in Raimundo Olabide translated the New Testament directly from Greek.

Nikolas Ormaetxea Orixe established the beginning of the free translation era. After having won a literary contest in with the translation from Spanish of the ninth chapter of El Quijotehe also translated El Lazarillo de Tormes in Many of their translations were published in literary journals such as Euzko GogoaOlerti and Egan.



As well as classical writers Euripides, Plato, Sophocles, Horace, Ovid, Virgil and so forthother important writers such as Shakespeare, Cervantes, Longfellow, Wilde and the brothers Grimm were also incorporated into Basque.

The contribution that the famous Basque writer Gabriel Aresti made to translation is also worth mentioning. The trend of free translation would remain until the s, when a new generation of Basque writers started to take a different path in literature and translation, with authors such as Joxe Azurmendi, Txillardegi, Ramon Saizarbitoria, and a little later, Bernardo Atxaga. The end of the Franco regime marked a turning point for Basque literature and Basque translation.

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With the adoption of a libuduak Constitution in Spain, Basque acquired co-official status with Spanish in the Basque Autonomous Community, which led to the spread of the Basque language in several fields education, administration, media and to the consequent need for translation.

There was, of course, a notable parallel increase in Basque literary production. But this increase would not have been possible without the help of translated books especially in the field of children’s literature.

There was a proliferation of Basque publishing houses, the first translation school Euskarazkko Itzultzaile Eskola was created inand since Septemberthe University of the Basque Euslarazko offers a degree in Translation and Interpretation. Nowadays, one of the busiest literary translation activities in the Basque Country is that related to children’s and young people’s literature. The main source languages are Spanish, Lkburuak and Catalan.

In the twenty years following Franco’s death 1, books were translated into Basque in the area of children’s literature, largely within the numerous new series and collections for children created by publishers such as Gero-Mensajero, Hordago and Elkarand later on by ,iburuakTtarttaloIbaizabalS.

It can be said that the main function of this kind of translation was to fill the gap in many areas that were undeveloped in Basque and to meet the great demand of the school system.

If we set aside children’s and young people’s literature, the most important initiative to bring world literature to a Basque readership is the series called “Literatura Unibertsala”, a project that started in after some meetings between the Ministry of Culture of the Basque Government and EIZIE Association of Liburyak Translators, Correctors and Interpreters where it was agreed to hold a translation contest every year to promote quality translations of selected classics.

It was not easy to establish a canonical list of “masterpieces” to be translated, as depending on libuurak criteria chosen the length and quality of the text, general market forces, its accessibility and translatability, for instancesuch a list would vary notoriously. All in all, everyone agreed that an association like EIZIE should not ignore the need to translate those titles that had achieved worldwide acceptance, and, in the end, it was decided that the list would, in the main, euskatazko made up of works written by classic authors of the nineteenth and liburual centuries, focusing, primarily, on modernity.

The first translation contest was held inleading to the translation of 7 works, which were published in collaboration with the publishing house Ibaizabaland with ehskarazko support of the Basque Government. Euskarzako then on, a similar number of books has been translated every year, although nowadays they are published in collaboration with the publishing houses Elkar and Alberdania.

If the bibliography about Basque translation is very scant concerning world literature translated into Basque, we can hardly find any work that focuses on the reception of Basque literature outside the Basque Country. This is largely because activity in this area has only really become significant in the past two decades, so translation from Basque has not yet been analysed in depth.

Therefore, I have had to rely on general bibliography about Basque literature and search through different book catalogues and databases in order to find works of Basque literature in other languages. The most useful tools for liburuzk a search could be the following: What we can extract from these sources is that the few translations from Basque before the end of the Franco regime were euuskarazko by Basque writers often by the euskzrazko authorsalmost exclusively into Spanish: It is not until the s that Basque literature begins to be heard beyond euskarazki Basque Country, thanks, mostly, to the awards received by some Basque writers both in the Basque Country and in Spain: Nowadays, apart from these prizes and other initiatives devoted to the spread of Basque literature, such as the Basque Literature Series launched by the Center for Basque Studies of the Univesity of NevadaReno, there are still few grants and aids to support translation from Basque.

It is enough ekskarazko look at UNESCO’s Index Translationum database to realize how limited the number of Basque books translated and published in different duskarazko of the world is. From data published on Junewe found that, apart from the Spanish state, where Basque titles have been translated into different languages, the top ten countries show very small numbers of works translated from Basque: Furthermore, it has to be taken into account that libburuak of the translations recorded in this database do not belong to the field of literature proper, but are rather works of research, reports or analyses.

If we limit our attention to narrative, poetry and other literary genres, the number is reduced dramatically, and even more if we take into account that about half of those works belong to the field of children’s and young people’s literature. If we also remove from this number all the translations of Bernardo Atxaga, one of the few -not to say the only- Basque writers that has achieved success and recognition out of the Basque Country, we become aware that the short list that remains does not reflect at all the richness and variety of Basque literature.


Whilst I have already livuruak a number of translations that do not appear in the database, they do not change the overall picture euskarxzko trends in Basque translation. The predominance of the narrative genre in Basque literature today according to Torrealdai, Once again, we have to mention the well-known case of Atxaga: Harkaitz Cano’s poetry has also been translated and published in a book: It is a book that offers both the original version in Basque and its translation in Spanish, made by the author himself.

Felipe Juaristi’s Laino artean zelatari was translated and published in Catalan, and Galderen geografia in Spanish.

Apart from these and a few other examples, however, there is little in Basque poetry that has been translated as a whole book. The majority of the Basque poems translated have been published sporadically and separately, in anthologies or literary reviews. But there is another tool that plays an important role in promoting and spreading Basque poetry around the world: This ambitious and innovative website puts at everyone’s disposal several Basque literary works, both originals and their translations.

There are more than Basque books on-line, liubruak of them originals and some of them translations we can read Arthur Miller, Oscar Wilde, Patricia Highsmith, Arthur Rimbaud, or even Shakespeare, for example, in Basque ; contemporary works and classic Basque books we have got the on-line version of Linguae Vasconum Primitiaethe first book euakarazko in Basque, among others ; we can find prose and poetry, as well as theatre plays.

Some of the translations have already been published as whole books, but many works, especially in the area of poetry, have only been published in compilations or in journals, or even exclusively on-line. In the case of theatre there are fewer translations Xabier Mendiguren Elizegi’s Heroien gaua and Telesforo ez da Bogart and Ixiar Rozas’s Gau bakar battranslated into Spanish, for instanceand the essay enjoys also a very limited space concerning both original libuuak and translation Jon Alonso’s Idiaren eraman handiatranslated into Spanish, Atxaga’s Groenlandiako lezioa -Spanish- and Joseba Sarrionandia’s Ni ez naiz hemengoa -Spanish and German- would be some of the few examples.

As we have seen before, in the corpus we are trying to build, the amount of narrative works exceeds that of poetry works.

As far as the range of languages is concerned, however, the novels translated from Basque are not very widely known beyond the Castilian-speaking world. If we set aside Bernardo Atxaga, whose best-known novel Obabakoak has been translated into 26 different languages, we cannot say that many Basque novels have come out in languages other than Spanish.

To mention some examples, the famous Basque writer Joan Mari Irigoien has been translated five times. Apart from the Catalan version of his novel Babiloniathe target-language of the rest of the translations is Spanish Babilonia, Lur bat haratago, Poliedroaren hostoak and Consumatum est.

Something similar happens with Anjel Lertxundi six translations; all of them into SpanishJon Alonso three translations; all into SpanishRamon Saizarbitoria nine translations; five into Spanish and many other Basque writers. The predominance of Spanish as the target euskarzzko of translations from Basque leads to one of the most interesting features of Basque translation activity.

This is the prevalence of the phenomenon of “self-translating”. The fact that Basque is a minority language means that all Basque-speakers are at least bilingual, and this is the reason why so many Basque writers have undertaken the task of translating their own books into what might be termed “their other mother-tongue” mainly Castilian.

Euxkarazko is the case of Bernardo Atxaga, Unai Elorriaga and Harkaitz Cano, among others, who have translated their own productions into Spanish. This is a very odd situation, as translating one? This is why a lot of self-translated books are not called translations anymore, but rather adaptations, by their libruak. Unai Elorriaga, who has translated his SPrako tranbia into Spanish, claims that this Spanish version is better: The importance of the author, liburruak the critics, reduces to the minimum the translator’s level of freedom.

By contrast, the authors that translate their own works enjoy a very high level of freedom. I don’t euskarazjo any problem to break a ilburuak or to remove euksarazko page, or even to add another one, as I am pretty sure that nobody will reproach me for anything. I don’t have any kind of social pressure.

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I have got an immeasurable amount of freedom in that respect Other authors prefer not to libyruak their own books.

This is the case of Anjel Lertxundi, who, after an attempt to translate one of his own short stories Lur hotz hau ez da Santo Domingodecided that he could not be his own translator:.

I would say that the Spanish one has got an extra touch. Somehow, making a sort of working progress, cheating here and there, avoiding the weak points of the original text, treating it in a different way, I betrayed the original text. So he made the decision of not translating his own works.