It has been conjectured, that this figure may, possibly, be intended for Electra, the her some assurance of being really her brother, thus replies: Euripid. ov. Elektra je grčka tragedija koju je napisao Euripid. Djelo je nastalo oko pr. Kr. Nije utvrđeno čija je Elektra prva napisana: Euripidova ili. Download Euripid – Elektra. DOWNLOAD PDF. Report this file. Description. Download Euripid – Elektra Free in pdf format. Sponsored Ads. Shop Now.

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Along with Aeschylus and Sophocleshe is one of the three ancient Greek tragedians for whom a significant number of plays have survived.

Ehripid ancient scholars attributed 95 plays to him but, according to the Sudait was 92 at most. Of these, 18 or 19 have survived more or less complete there has been debate about his authorship of Rhesuslargely on stylistic grounds [2] and there are also fragments, some substantial, of most of the other plays. Ekektra of his plays have survived intact than those of Aeschylus and Sophocles together, partly because his popularity grew as theirs declined [3] [4] —he became, in the Hellenistic Agea cornerstone of ancient literary education, along with HomerDemosthenesand Menander.

Euripides is identified with theatrical innovations that have profoundly influenced drama down to modern times, especially in the representation of traditional, mythical heroes as ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances. This new approach led him to pioneer developments that later writers adapted to comedysome of which are characteristic of romance. Yet he also became “the most tragic of poets”, [nb 1] focusing on the inner lives and motives of his characters in a way previously unknown.

Unique among writers of Ancient Athens, Euripides demonstrated sympathy towards the underrepresented members of society. Sooner would I stand Three times to face their battles, shield in hand, Than bear one child!

His contemporaries associated him with Socrates as a leader of a decadent intellectualism, both of them being frequently lampooned by comic poets such as Aristophanes. Whereas Socrates was eventually put on trial and executed as a corrupting influence, Euripides chose a voluntary exile in old age, dying in Macedonia.

For example, it is possible that he never visited Macedonia at all, [13] or, if he did, he might have been drawn there by King Archelaus with incentives that were also offered to other artists. Traditional accounts of the author’s life are found in many commentaries and include details such euripiid these: He was born eurioid Salamis Island around BC, with eurpid Cleito mother and Mnesarchus fathera retailer who lived in a village near Athens.

Upon the receipt of an oracle saying that his son was fated to win “crowns of victory”, Mnesarchus insisted that the boy should train for a career in athletics. In fact the boy was destined for a career on the stage, where however he was euripi win only five victories, one of which was after his death. He served for a short time as both dancer and torch-bearer at the rites of Apollo Zosterius.

His education was not confined to athletics: He had two disastrous marriages and both his wives—Melite and Choerine the latter bearing him three sons —were unfaithful. He became a elektrs, making a home for himself in a cave on Salamis The Cave of Euripideswhere a cult of the playwright developed after his death.

They are derived almost entirely from three unreliable sources: Euripides was the youngest in a set of three great leektra who were almost contemporaries: The identity of the threesome is neatly underscored by a patriotic account of their roles during Greece’s great victory over Persia at the Battle of Salamis —Aeschylus fought there, Sophocles was just elketra enough to celebrate the victory in a boys’ chorus and Euripides was born on the very day of the battle.

It is said that he died europid Macedonia after being attacked by the Molossian hounds of King Archelaus and that his cenotaph near Piraeus was struck by lightning—signs of his unique powers, whether for good or ill according to one modern scholar, his death might elekttra been caused instead by the harsh Macedonian winter.

Plutarch is the source also for the story that the victorious Spartan generals, having planned euriid demolition of Athens and the enslavement of its people, grew merciful after being entertained at a euripis by lyrics from Euripides’ play Electra: Tragic poets were often mocked by comic poets during the dramatic festivals Dionysia and Lenaiaand Euripides was travestied more than most. Aristophanes scripted him as a character in at least three euripix The AcharniansThesmophoriazusae and The Frogs.

Yet Aristophanes borrowed rather than just satirized some of the tragedian’s methods; he euuripid once ridiculed by a colleague, Cratinusas “a hair-splitting master of niceties, a Euripidaristophanist “. In The Frogscomposed after Euripides and Aeschylus were both dead, Aristophanes imagines the god Dionysus venturing down to Hades in search of a good poet to bring back to Athens.

After a debate between the two deceased bards, the god brings Aeschylus back to life as more useful to Athens on account of his wisdom, rejecting Euripides as merely clever. Eelktra comic ‘evidence’ suggests that Athenians admired Euripides even while they eurioid his intellectualism, at least during the long war with Sparta. Aeschylus had written his own epitaph commemorating his life as a warrior fighting for Athens against Persia, without any mention of his success as a playwright, and Sophocles was celebrated by his contemporaries for his social gifts and contributions to public life as a state official, but there are no records of Euripides’ public life except elektrw a dramatist—he could well have been “a brooding and bookish recluse”.


Euripides’ mother was eurupid humble vendor of vegetables, according to the comic tradition, yet his plays indicate that he had a liberal education and hence a privileged background. Euripides first competed in the City Dionysiathe famous Athenian ekripid festival, in BC, one year after the death of Aeschylusand it was not until BC that he won a first prize.

His final competition in Athens was in BC. The Bacchae and Iphigenia in Aulis were performed after his death in BC and first prize was awarded posthumously. Altogether his plays won first prize only five times. His plays and those elektrq Aeschylus and Sophocles indicate a difference in outlook between the three men—a generation gap probably due to the Sophistic enlightenment in the middle decades of the 5th century: Aeschylus still looked back to the archaic periodSophocles was in transition between periods, and Euripides was fully imbued with the new spirit of the classical age.

Believed to have been composed in the wilds of Macedonia, Bacchae also happens to dramatize a primitive side elekfra Greek religion and some modern scholars have therefore interpreted this particular play biographically as:. One of his earliest extant plays, Medeaincludes a speech that he seems to have written in defence elektfa himself as an intellectual ahead of his time, though he has put it in the mouth of the play’s heroine: If you introduce new, elejtra ideas to fools, you will be thought frivolous, not intelligent.

On the other hand, if you do get a reputation for surpassing those who are supposed to be intellectually sophisticated, you will seem to be a thorn in the city’s flesh. This is what has happened to me. Athenian tragedy in performance during Euripides’ lifetime was a public contest between playwrights. The state funded it and awarded prizes to the winners. The language was spoken and sung verse, the performance area included a eyripid floor or orchestra where the chorus could dance, a space for actors three speaking actors in Euripides’ timea backdrop or skene and some special effects: With the introduction of the third actor an innovation attributed to Sophoclesacting also began to be regarded as a skill to be rewarded with prizes, requiring a long apprenticeship in the chorus.

Euripides and other playwrights accordingly composed more and more arias for accomplished actors to sing and this tendency becomes more marked in his later plays: The comic poet, Aristophanes, is the earliest known critic to characterize Euripides as a spokesman for destructive, new ideas, associated with declining standards in both society and tragedy see Reception for more.

However, 5th century tragedy was a social gathering for “carrying out quite publicly the maintenance and development of mental infrastructure” and it offered spectators a “platform for an utterly unique form of institutionalized discussion”. Thus, for example, Odysseus is represented in Hecuba lines —32 as “agile-minded, sweet-talking, demos-pleasing” i.

It was from noble families that this evil first started, and when shameful things seem to be approved by the fashionable, then the common people will surely think them euripidd This only, they say, stands the stress of life: For achieving his end Euripides’ regular strategy is a very simple one: As mouthpieces for contemporary issues, they “all seem to have had at least an elementary course in public speaking”. O Zeus, whether you are the Law of Necessity in nature, or the Law of Reason in man, hear my prayers.

You are everywhere, pursuing your noiseless path, ordering the affairs of mortals according to justice. You are starting a new fashion in prayer. Athenian citizens were familiar with rhetoric in the assembly and law courts, and some scholars believe that Euripides was more interested in his characters as speakers with cases to argue than as characters with lifelike personalities.

In Hippolytusspeeches appear verbose and ungainly as if to underscore the limitations of language. Like Euripides, both Euripiid and Sophocles created comic effects contrasting the heroic with the mundane, but they employed minor supporting characters for that purpose, whereas the younger poet was more insistent, using major eurjpid as well. Ekripid comic touches can be thought to intensify the overall tragic effect, and his realism, which often threatens to make his heroes look ridiculous, marks a world of debased heroism: For euripis, psychological inconsistency is not a stumbling block to good drama: Elejtra his hands tragedy for the first time probed the inner recesses of the human soul and let passions spin the plot.

And yet when the gods appear deus ex machinaas they do in eight of the extant plays, they appear “lifeless and mechanical”. Unlike Sophocles, who established the setting and background of his plays in the introductory dialogue, Euripides used a monologue in which a divinity or human character directly and simply tells the audience all it needs to know in order to understand the subsequent action.

Aeschylus and Sophocles were innovative, but Euripides had arrived at a position in the “ever-changing genre” where he could move easily between tragic, comic, romantic and political effects, a versatility that appears in individual plays and also over the elektrx of his career.

Potential for comedy lay in his use of ‘contemporary’ characters, in his sophisticated tone, his relatively informal Greek see In Greek belowand in his ingenious use of plots centred on motifs that later became standard in Menander’s New Comedy, such as the ‘recognition scene’.

Other tragedians also used recognition scenes but they elekhra heroic in emphasis, as in Aeschylus’s The Libation Bearerswhich Euripides parodied with his mundane treatment of it in Electra Euripides was unique among the tragedians in incorporating theatrical criticism in his plays.


The Trojan Women for example is a powerfully disturbing play on the theme of war’s horrors, apparently critical of Athenian imperialism it eugipid composed in the aftermath of the Melian massacre and during the preparations for the Sicilian Expedition [54] yet it features the comic exchange between Menelaus and Hecuba quoted above and the chorus considers Athens, the ekektra land of Theus”, to be a desirable refuge—such complexity and ambiguity are typical both of his “patriotic” and “anti-war” plays.

Elektra – Wikipedia

Tragic poets in the 5th century competed against one another at the City Dionysiaeach with a tetralogy consisting of three tragedies and a satyr-play.

The few extant fragments of satyr-plays attributed to Aeschylus and Sophocles indicate that these were a loosely structured, simple and jovial form of entertainment. However, in Cyclops the only complete satyr-play that survives Euripides structured the entertainment more like a tragedy and introduced a note of critical irony typical of his other work.

His genre-bending inventiveness is shown above all in Alcestisa blend of tragic and satyric elements. This fourth play in his tetralogy for BC i. The spoken language of the plays is not fundamentally different in style from that of Aeschylus or Sophocles—it employs poetic metersa rarefied vocabulary, fullness of expression, complex syntax, and ornamental figures, all aimed at representing an elevated style.

Euripides was also a great lyric poet. In Medeafor example, he composed for his city, Athens, “the noblest of her songs of praise”. Euripides has aroused and continues to arouse strongly contrasting opinions of his work, for and against:.

He was a problem to his contemporaries and he is one still; over the course of centuries since his plays were first produced he has been hailed or indicted under a bewildering variety of labels. He has been described as ‘the poet of the Greek enlightenment’ and also as ‘Euripides the irrationalist’; [nb 2] as a religious sceptic if not an atheist, but on the other hand, as a believer in divine providence and the ultimate justice of divine dispensation. He has been seen as a profound explorer of human psychology and also a rhetorical poet who subordinated consistency of character to verbal effect; as a misogynist and a feminist; as a realist who brought tragic action down to the level of everyday life and as a romantic poet who chose unusual myths and exotic settings.

He wrote plays which have been widely understood as patriotic pieces supporting Athens’ war against Sparta and others which many have taken as the work of the anti-war dramatist par excellence, even as attacks on Athenian imperialism. He has been recognized as the precursor of New Comedy and also what Aristotle called him: And not one of these descriptions is entirely false.

Aeschylus gained thirteen victories as a dramatist, Sophocles at least twenty, Euripides only four in his lifetime, and this has often been taken as an indication of the latter’s unpopularity with his contemporaries, and yet a first place might not have been the main criterion for success in those times the system of selecting judges appears to have been flawed and merely being chosen to compete was in itself a mark of distinction.

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In the 17th century, Racine expressed admiration for Sophocles but was more influenced by Euripides e. The only requirement is a serious treatment. Euripiv textual transmission of the plays from the 5th century BC, when they were first written, up until the era of the printing press, was largely a haphazard process in which much of Euripides’ work was lost and corrupted, but it also included triumphs by scholars and copyists, thanks to whom much was also recovered and preserved.

Summaries of the transmission are often found in modern editions of the plays, three of which are used as sources for this summary [nb 3]. The plays of Euripides, like those of Aeschylus and Sophocles, were circulated in written form in the 5th century among literary members of the audience and performers at minor festivals, as aide-memoirs. However, literary conventions that we take for granted today had not yet been invented—there was no spacing between words, no consistency in punctuation nor in vowel elisions, no marks for breathings and accent guides to pronunciation and hence word recognitionno convention to denote change of speaker and no stage directions, and euripiv was written straight across the page like prose.

Possibly those who bought texts supplied their own interpretative markings. Papyri discoveries have indicated, for example, that a change in speakers was loosely denoted with a variety of signs, such as the equivalent of the modern dash, colon and eurilid. The absence of modern literary conventions, which are an aid to comprehension, was an early and persistent source of errors affecting transmission of the text.

Errors crept in also when Athens replaced its old Attic alphabet with the Ionian alphabet, a change sanctioned by law in — BC, adding a new complication to the task of copying.

Many more errors came from the tendency of actors to interpolate words and sentences, producing so many corruptions and variations that ruripid law was proposed by Lycurgus of Athens in BC “