Brooks GA () Anaerobic threshold: review of the concept and directions for future research. Med Sci Sports Exerc 22–31PubMedGoogle Scholar. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Martin Holfeld and others published Energiebereitstellung im Sport − fächerverbindender Chemie/Sport. Energiebereitstellung in Abhängigkeit von der Belastungsdauer [6]. from publication: A systematic review of the significance of sport and diet for physical.

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Elevated blood lactate has been shown to influence subsequent anaerobic exercise due to an inhibition of glycolysis.

anaerobe Energiebereitstellung im Muskel by Anna Bruhn on Prezi

The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the influence of a short and high-intensity anaerobic arm crank pre-load exercise HIE added to a low-intensity warm-up on cardio-respiratory and metabolic responses on a subsequent all out rowing exercise.

Nine well-trained college level male rowers The subjects performed a maximal m rowing ergometer performance tests MPT twice. Net La increase from rest to the end of the MPT low was In conclusion, HIE upper-body anaerobic pre-load added to a standard low intensity warm-up protocol decreased anaerobic performance only in the early stages of the MPThigh but the latter part was unaffected. The inhibition of glycolysis in the first minute of the workout might allow a different race strategy, which needs to be investigated in further studies.

According to Roth et al. One of the purposes of warm-up is to prepare the organism for high intensity work and to speed up aerobic energy production.


Therefore, warm-up is an integral part of the preparation before the start of a m rowing race. Warming-up prior to a competitive exercise bout is a widely accepted practice in sports, with athletes and coaches alike believing that warming-up is essential for attaining optimal performance McGowan et al. It is not possible to have similar warm-up protocol for all sports and athletes, therefore athletes search the best practice to prepare for their competition Mujika et al.

Alternatively, athletes use one specific warm-up protocol, which has successfully been applied previously by other athletes or during their own practice McGowan et al.

An active warm-up is a routine performed by most athletes to improve competitive performance. Previous studies have demonstrated that a number of physiological changes occur with active warm-up, some of which are potentially capable of improving performance, particularly during high-intensity exercise Bishop, This practice probably increases muscle temperature, nerve conduction rate, speed of metabolic reactions, oxygen uptake kinetics, muscle post activation potentiation, and psychological preparedness Bishop, Other studies ehergiebereitstellung found conflicting results, suggesting that active warm-up does not produce significant physiological energiehereitstellung that might be expected to enhance performance Hajoglou et al.

Apparently, the rate of muscle glycogenolysis and blood lactate La production as well as performance are reduced when a high-intensity exercise bout is preceded by very intense exercise Bangsbo et al. Muscle glycogen concentration does not appear to influence the rate of glycogenolysis Bangsbo et al. It has also been demonstrated that glycogen breakdown and La accumulation were reduced when muscle glycogen was low Iaia et al.

La production can also be low during intense exercise although the muscle glycogen concentration is high as it energiebereitsteklung be suggested that elevated lactate levels influence the rate of glycolysis in a subsequent anaerobic workout Bishop et al.

A similar effect has been shown by Iaia et al. In contrast, a short high-intensity non-specific exercise bout before an all-out competition like exercise may therefore act as a priming effect, which speeds up VO 2 kinetics important for a major part of the race duration, which has been shown recently for cycling Burnley et al. In that study it was shown that heavy-intensity priming exercise increased aerobic contribution early in exercise, reduced the amplitude and trajectory of the VO 2 slow endrgiebereitstellung and increased VO 2peakproviding snergiebereitstellung greater scope for the VO 2 response Burnley et al.

Primed VO 2 kinetics may have served to reduce the rate of substrate-level phosphorylation and delayed the attainment of VO 2peakwhich might have resulted in an increase in time to exhaustion and therefore power Burnley et al. The aim of the present investigation was to investigate how a short and high-intensity anaerobic non-rowing specific arm crank pre-load exercise added to a low-intensity warm-up affects m rowing ergometer performance.

It was hypothesized that m maximal rowing ergometer work is not significantly influenced by an inhibition of glycolysis due to a pre-elevated lactate concentration by a non-specific anaerobic bout of exercise, which is compensated by an accelerated oxygen uptake.


Nine college level male rowers age: Measurements took place at the end of the preparatory period and before the first on-water competition.

All rowers have been taking part to rowing training for at least the last 5 years and have competed several times in on-water rowing and rowing ergometer competitions. The rowers were fully familiarized with the procedures before providing their written consent to participate at the experiment as approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the local university.

Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The test started at an initial work rate of 40 W with increments of 20 W after every minute until fatigue. All data were processed by means of computer-supported analysis applying standard software MetaSoft 3 Version: Calculations of turn points were performed by a computer-aided linear regression break point analysis Hofmann et al.

The athletes were fully familiarized with the use of this energibeereitstellung. Power and stroke frequency were monitored and recorded continuously via computer display of the rowing ergometer. The maximal m all-out wport performance tests MPT were performed on a wind-resistance-braked rowing ergometer Concept 2, Morrisville, VT, USAwith the resistant level set from 4 to 6.

The rowing ergometer is one of the most used training equipments for rowers during the wintertime. During the MPT, athletes were asked to cover a distance of m spor the shortest time possible.

This MPT is part of the usual training preparation and athletes were familiar with the procedure. Power and stroke frequency were recorded continuously. The subjects performed MPT twice with at least 3 days of break between tests. Both MPT were preceded by a low intensity warm-up MPT low but one test was preceded by an additional high intensity unspecific anaerobic upper body pre-load protocol MPT high.

The MPT high was performed after the same 20 min warm-up, but added by a 25 s high intensity anaerobic upper-body all-out arm crank pre-load exercise HIE to induce an elevated systemic La concentration. Different warm-up protocols for the m maximal performance test MPT.

Numbers in the upper row indicate time in min t and numbers in the lower row La indicate the number of blood samples to measure blood lactate concentration La. The upper graph shows the low intensity warm-up MPT low and the lower graph shows the additional high intensity pre-load MPT high. La concentration was determined for both conditions enregiebereitstellung rest, after the warm-up, after the anaerobic-preload, and during recovery Figure 1.

For continuous variables, the distribution was tested by the Shapiro-Wilks method. Mean differences were assessed by a independent t-test. Pearson correlation analysis was used to assess the relationships between m energiebeteitstellung results variables and relevant gas-exchange and La concentration.

Table 1 shows all relevant performance variables from the incremental exercise test. In brief, VO 2max was found at VO 2max – maximal oxygen consumption; VE- maximal ventilation; VT 1 – first ventilatory threshold; VT 2 – second ventilatory threshold; P max – maximal aerobic power ; HR max — maximal heart rate.

The first m of the MPT high Figure 2 were slower but not the second m whereas the m split times of the first m were 0.

VO 2 per W economy was higher in the HIE preload situation indicating a shift from anaerobic to a slightly higher aerobic energy contribution Figure 2. Net La increase from the start to the end of the MPT low was High-intensity arm exercise elevated La before up to 8.

Net La increase was significantly reduced to 6. Changes of blood lactate concentration from pre to post exercise, as well as from pre to 3 min and 6 min post exercise in a maximal m all-out rowing performance test with normal low intensity MPT low and energibereitstellung additional 25 sec all-out arm crank pre-load exercise MPT high. Blood Lactate concentration mmol. MPT low – Maximal m rowing performance test with normal low intensity warm-up; MPT high – Maximal m rowing performance test with additional 25 sec all-out arm crank pre-load.

The decrease energiebereitstellun performance was only significant for the first m of the MPT high although the same oxygen uptake at energiebeteitstellung start was found for both tests.

Energiebereitstellung im Sport by Jeff Cheff on Prezi

Oxygen uptake was neither accelerated nor increased in the pre-loaded MPT high condition. The decreased performance energiebereitstellugn MPT high was related to a lower stroke rate and a reduced anaerobic energy energiebereotstellung, indicated by the marked decrease in net lactate concentration, CO 2 output and RER during the maximal all out performance test.

Although muscle metabolites have not been measured in detail, for rowing exercise, there is evidence that the relatively long duration exercise at an intensity close to maximal oxygen uptake will decrease phosphocreatine stores and increase muscle lactate levels substantially Mavrommataki et al. This high-intensity anaerobic start quickly increases muscle and La concentration and decreases pH already in the first minute of a min race if initial La concentration is low. It could be argued that it might be beneficial to avoid the side effects of this rapid pH and La changes early after the start of a race within the rowing specific muscles.


It has been shown recently that not extracellular acidosis pHe but intracellular acidosis pHi is responsible for muscle fatigue and performance limitations. Even though reports of a beneficial effect of metabolic acidosis on force development in isolated rat muscle have challenged this view Volianitis et al. As shown energiebfreitstellung our study and by others Bogdanis et al. It is suggested that this decreased La production favors oxidative rnergiebereitstellung, which was energiebfreitstellung found in our study.

However, we suggest that subjects applied their same pacing strategy as usual but possibly could have tried harder during the first minute of exercise. Pacing strategy is therefore important, not to lose too much time at the start and to avoid severe side effects limiting the rest of the race Gee et al.

Currently, pacing is more or less the same in all rowers, starting fast and trying to sustain the high La concentration induced by the start for the rest of the race.

Two energiebeeitstellung effects may be expected such as a decrease in energieberwitstellung energy contribution during the first min of a race and an increase in oxidative energy contribution.

In our study maximal La concentration was Rowers performing the HIE pre-load had higher La values at the beginning of the MPT, which significantly diminished the increase in net La concentration and lactic anaerobic energy contribution.

In line with findings by Bogdanis et al. This implies that high intensity anaerobic pre-load exercise too close to a specific competition workout may limit maximal anaerobic exercise contribution and sports performance as long as a maximal anaerobic lactate production rate such as in sprint exercise is required Bishop, ; Bishop et al.

As rowing does not require a maximal sprint at the start it might be speculated that although anaerobic energy contribution is reduced this may be compensated by an increased oxidation rate.

Our results did show neither a significant priming effect nor an increased oxygen uptake at peak exercise questioning these energiebereitstellunv. This increase in split times was only significant for the first m, which might be attributed to racing strategy influenced by the pre-load situation.

Subjects might believe that the anaerobic pre-load will not allow starting with the same speed, which may be a major confounder.

The capacity of substrate-level phosphorylation should not be a limit as it was suggested to be completely restored 10 min after heavy-intensity priming exercise Burnley et al. In support of our hypothesis, it was also shown by Bogdanis et al. These authors concluded that prior heavy exercise increased the primary VO 2 amplitude and increased the tolerable sporrt of severe exercise performed after 10 min of recovery.

This enrgiebereitstellung associated with a significant increase in power. The effect on exercise performance was positive after prior heavy-intensity priming and neutral after prior severe-intensity priming.

More prolonged recovery energiebereitxtellung may produce more consistent performance effects Burnley et al. It has previously been shown that if the warm-up intensity is too high, the subsequent metabolic acidaemia is associated with impaired supramaximal performance and a reduction in the accumulated oxygen deficit Bishop et al. In support to our study Bailey et al. The results of Bishop et al. An additional explanation for the reduction in performance in our study is suggested to be the usual pacing strategy that obviously was not changed energiebreitstellung the HIE pre-load condition.


HIE, inducing a La concentration of about mmol. As the differences in workload could not be blinded to the subjects in our study, we cannot rule out such an effect. As La production will be limited both in arms and legs with the HIE pre-load subjects might be able to start at the same or even a higher pace eg.

Additional studies applying only split distances may give some more detailed insight into the limits of the approach.