Abstract— In this paper present High Voltage DC generation by using Cockcroft- Walton Multiplier are purpose. This section is providing continues input current. Abstract—This paper primarily describes a Cockcroft Walton voltage multiplier circuit. The objective of the project is to design a voltage multiplier which should. Cockroft Walton Voltage Multipliers. The classic multistage diode/capacitor voltage multipler, popularized by Cockroft and Walton, is probably the most popular.

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How Does a Voltage Multiplier Work? | Hackaday

If you need a high voltage, a voltage multiplier is one of the easiest ways to obtain it. A voltage multiplier is a specialized type of rectifier circuit that converts an AC voltage to a higher DC voltage. Theoretically the output of the multiplier is an integer times the AC peak input voltage, and while they can work with any input voltage, the principal use for voltage multipliers is when very high voltages, in the mulfiplier of tens of thousands or even millions of volts, are needed.

They have the advantage of being relatively easy to build, and are cheaper than an equivalent high voltage transformer of the same output rating. If you need sparks for your mad science, perhaps a voltage multiplier can provide them for you. The multiplier circuit needs an AC power supply in order multiplidr work. As we can see, we will end with V between ground and the output points a and b in the last figureeffectively quadrupling the supply voltage.

For instance, capacitors do not charge instantly, therefore they do not multilpier the full voltage until several cycles have passed, depending on the charging current that the power supply can deliver.

The multiplier that we just discussed has two stages. Note that each component in the circuit only sees at most twice the peak input voltage provided by the source, therefore you can use low voltage components and many stages to obtain a very high output voltage.

However, the output voltage will drop as soon as you connect a load to the circuit, according to this formula. Here we can see that we need high frequency and high capacitance in order to minimize voltage drop, and that this drop increases with current, and also very rapidly with the number of stages.

Corona acts as an unwanted load on the multiplier, reducing the output power. For this reason large diameter end points and conductors are used.

This of course complicates the design of very high voltage multipliers but at the same time accounts for their impressive look, as in the feature image. Homemade voltage multiplier, by [rmcybernetics] Making a voltage multiplier to obtain high voltage is a popular project and is pretty easy as long as the voltage is not too high for corona to start creating problems. Practical uses include X-ray machines, photocopiers, air ionizers and microwave ovens, among others.

At the high end of the spectrum are the multipliers used for vpltage in particle accelerators, several meters in height, that can reach millions of volts. The high voltage multiplier has a venerable history in particle accelerators, and even a Nobel prize in Physics was awarded for research that was possible thanks to it. However as new technology has arrived, in particular radio-frequency quadrupole coccroft, those magnificent multipliers have been retired. Dead-bugged voltage multipliers can be a really beautiful work of art!

How Does a Voltage Multiplier Work?

Burned-out CFL lamps sometimes work as a power source. These are for very high voltages. Most diodes from the parts bin have a break down voltage of 1KV or less. So they put a few in series to use them for higher voltages. Or you can take the diodes from old Micro wave ovens, but then you wil have to source 11 or more Micro wave Ovens. Only if the input frequency is 60 cycles or lower.


For higher frequencies and higher power another high voltage fast diode is needed. However, if the total voltage is not shared evenly by several diodes in series, the diode with the highest voltage across it will start leaking more current than the others, thereby restoring the voltage balance, as the leakage current will cause the voltage across that particular diode to drop, while the voltage across the other diodes increases.

Of course, you do need to include some safety margin; using 10 diodes rated at 1kV each for a 10kV source would be bad; as soon as one of the diodes goes into avalanche breakdown, the voltage across it rapidly drops, and the voltage across the others increases as a result, until another one goes into avalanche breakdown, and soon everything will be on fire.

It behaves like a Z-diode, clamping the voltage. A 1A diode dissipates 0. Jermaine, there is no spark-gap like breakdown. The cap will limit the voltage rising speed and the diode will gradually start to conduct some current. So there is no possibility that this cap could suddenly dump its charge into the diode. The variant in my head was used a long time ago. You move up or down by stepping from one of the ladders to the other at the right moment.

Does anyone know how this is called? Having built some excessively large multipliers stepping up from around 30Kv and able to throw a nice spark a good mm I found the best option was to drop the multiplier in transformer oil.

I built an Ion Gun many years ago this way using an old wallton strobe light casing. The down side was the emitter was not far enough forward and given the trigger was just under mm from the emitter the first and last firing using the trigger was a little shocking. One of the coolest uses however was to sit a small Z shaped rotor on the pin at the end with the unit sitting upright, turn it on and watch the rotor wizz around real fast as the negative ions were being flung off the points.

In my early years as a radio ham, a circuit much like these were called bridge rectifiers. They let me get up to to volts out of TV transformers intended to produce volts. This is actually closer to a half wave bridge than anything.

If you look at the wikipedia article on the Cockroft-Walton Generator, you will see that you are actually looking at one half of the full multiplier. If driven with a true AC sine with zero crossingyou are better off with the full wave variant. These actually do not have to be driven by a sine wave; a lowpassed square works equally cckcroft although slightly less efficient in some cases.

Voltage multipliers used to be used in TV sets. A doubler to get about twice the peak line voltage for the horizontal output.

Also sometimes another one at the output of wqlton flyback to step up the voltage for the second anode of the CRT. I presume this was to reduce the cost of the flyback transformer. The solution was a 10 stage C-W multiplier, with each wa,ton supplying the volt dynode to dynode drop in the 10 stage PhotoMultiplier tubes. The PM sockets were removed, and the C-W was fabbed directly onto the PM wires, then the whole shebang was primed and silicone rubber potted onto the tube.

The VAC sine wave supply gave us no corona noise issues! We rode on the first satellites to leave Earth orbit. About a dozen years later, the one spiraling toward the Sun passed Earth, giving us another , miles of data! All 3 C-Ws were still cranking along. The C-W multiplier lives on in outer space! So the higher the frequency of the AC input power the better? I wondered because these days solid state power amplifier chips can handle very high loads and high frequencies so a custom high frequency AC supply may not be that hard for a DIYer to do.


A car stereo power amp would work dandy. Find a suitable switching supply to power it, hook up a signal generator to the input, and you have the speaker output. Wire a normal transformer as step-up and add your multiplier. Mulgiplier have built in overloads, easy to control output and if you blow a channel there are 1 — 3 spares depending on the model.

My first helium-neon laser in the s used a voltage multiplier in its power supply. Good on you for getting things going with what you had: So was it or did the other things detract from the giant bug zappers? I know, I know, wikipedia puts the diagrams side-by-side already.

Cockcroft–Walton generator

Typically you have a generator rated at 6VAC, but depending on speed you get V. You can easily rectify and feed a linear regulator, but inefficiency in this application gets applied as resistance at the generator, which ends up meaning you pedal harder for the same speed! So efficiency is very useful here. The voltage multiplier shown here is also a rectifier, so it might be reasonable to use this to double the voltage, then only a simple buck switcher is needed and you have a low dropout voltage.

This is more often used for high voltage, but there might also be a lot of utility in this circuit for the DIYer when dealing with low voltage AC! The doubler will also introduce some inefficiencies: Besides, at the low AC frequency of a typical bike generator, you will need hefty capacitors to power anything more demanding than a cycle computer.

What would be a good capacitance value, input AC frequency and load resistance to play with this circuit using an oscilloscope? I built two CW voltage multipliers, one positive output and one negative output, and both driven from the same AC source, I know the voltage between the output terminals is twice what is normally possible with a single multiplier.

Will I damage the diodes or capacitors that are already rated at twice the input voltage? Should I build the CW multipliers with 4 times the input voltage rating i.

Any engineering insight would be appreciated. Was the 5kv input voltage rms, peak voltage, or peak-to-peak? You have to make sure the components can handle the peak to peak voltage of the input source.

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How Does It Work? Note that this leads the capacitor to be positive at its right side and negative at its left. I leave the big stuff to the pros but love these break downs. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Email required Address never made public.