contradiction with each other, and the Arabic and English versions of Art. 36 CISG still make different presumptions. The inconsistency between the Arabic and. Furthering the Uniform Application of the CISG: Sources of Law on the Internet, Identification of errors in authentic Arab text of CISG [ – in Arabic and English], . of conflict-of-laws (private international law) rules Contract draftsmen should also note that there are six equally authentic versions of the CISG: the Arabic.

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The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods CISG has been recognized as the most successful attempt to aeabic a broad area of commercial law at the international level.

The self-executing treaty aims to reduce obstacles to international trade, particularly those associated with arqbic of law issues, by creating even-handed and modern substantive rules governing the rights and obligations of parties to international sales contracts. At the time this is written Februarythe CISG has attracted more than 70 Contracting States that account for well over two thirds of aravic trade in goods, and that represent extraordinary economic, geographic and cultural diversity.

The CISG entered into force in eleven initial Contracting States on 1 Januaryand since that time has steadily and continuously attracted a diverse group ciag adherents. The CISG governs international sales contracts if 1 both parties are located in Contracting States, or 2 private international law leads to the application of the law of a Contracting State although, as permitted by the CISG article 95several Contracting States have declared that they are not bound by the latter ground.

Electronic Library on International Commercial Law and the CISG

The autonomy of the parties to international sales contracts is a fundamental theme of the Convention: When the Convention applies, it does not govern every issue that can arise from an international sales contract: Questions concerning matters governed by the Convention but that are not expressly addressed therein are to be settled in conformity with the general principles of the CISG or, in the absence of such principles, by reference to the law applicable under the rules of private international law.

Among the many significant provisions of the CISG are those addressing the following matters: The CISG also includes a provision eliminating written-form requirements for international sales contracts within its scope — although the Convention authorizes Contracting States to reserve out of this provision, and a number have done so.

For example, the United Nations Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods contains rules governing the limitation period for claims arising under international sales contracts. The Limitations Convention was originally promulgated inbut was amended in by a Protocol adopted by the Diplomatic Conference that approved the CISG in order to harmonize the two Conventions. At the time this is written, the amended Limitations Convention is in force in 20 Contracting States.


Inthe General Assembly adopted the United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts to address various issues arising when electronic communications methods are employed in connection with international contracts, including international sales contracts.

Issues addressed in the Electronic Communications Convention include contract formation by automated communications, the time and place that electronic communications are deemed dispatched and received, determination of the location of parties employing electronic communications, and criteria for establishing functional equivalence between electronic and hard copy communication and authentication. At the time this is written, 18 States have signed the Electronic Communications Convention, although it has not yet been ratified or acceded to by any State and it has not yet entered into force.

No special tribunals were created for the CISG; it is applied and interpreted by the national courts and arbitration panels that have jurisdiction in disputes over transactions governed by the Convention. To achieve its fundamental purpose of providing uniform rules for international sales, the Convention itself requires that it be interpreted with a view to maintaining its international character and uniformity. To that end, special research resources, often consisting of databases available free of charge through the Internet, provide access to materials designed to foster uniform international understanding of the rules of the CISG.

Kluwer Law International, 4th ed. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods was the outcome of a long process of unification the origin of which goes back to the very early days of the movement for the unification of international trade law.

The Convention is rooted in two earlier conventions sponsored by the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law Unidroit. InUnidroit decided to undertake the preparation of a uniform law on the international sale of goods, which resulted in two separate conventions: Developed over the course of three decades by leading commercial law experts of Western Europe, xrabic two Conventions were finalized in by a diplomatic conference at The Hague and entered into force in among nine states.

Despite their fundamental importance, they failed to receive substantial acceptance outside Western Europe. Accordingly, the Commission requested the Secretary-General to send a questionnaire to Member States of the United Nations or any of its specialized agencies.


In both cases, the Working Group recommended that the Commission adopt new texts, which would be more acceptable to countries of different legal, economic or social systems.

It further produced two draft Conventions, namely the draft Convention on the International Sale of Goods, setting forth the rights and obligations of the seller and buyer under the sales contract, and the draft Convention on the Formation of Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, which the Working Group completed respectively in and During the period of tothe Secretary-General was often requested by the Commission and the Working Group to prepare reports on certain matters pertaining to international sale of goods.

The Commission, at its tenth session inapproved the draft Convention on the International Sale of Goods based upon the text proposed by the Working Group. At its eleventh session inthe Commission approved the draft Convention on the Formation of Contracts for the International Sale of Goods and decided to combine the two draft Conventions into the draft Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, which it approved at the same session.

Based on the recommendation from the Commission, the General Assembly submitted the draft Convention to the United Nations Conference on the International Sale of Goods Conference of Plenipotentiariesconvened infor its consideration.

The Convention opened for signature on 11 April during the Conference in Vienna. In accordance with its article 99, it entered into force arablc 1 January Selected preparatory documents in chronological order.

United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

The Hague Ciwg of For further information and documentation on the Convention and its preparatory works including working documents of the United Nations Conference on Contracts for the International Sale of Goodssee the official website of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law. For the documentation of the Working Group on the international sale of goods, see http: The Convention entered into force on 1 January For the current participation status of the Convention, as well as information and relevant aragic of related treaty actions, such as reservations, declarations, objections, denunciations and notifications, see: Terms and Conditions of Use.

Text of the Convention. Jankowitsch Austria Vote on the draft resolution: Coste France Explanation of vote 36 seconds, English. Published with the kind atabic of the IBA 20 minutes, Full version.